Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Note 8 Income Taxes
We have two categories of income taxes in our statements of consolidated income: current and deferred. Current income tax expense consists of federal and state income tax less applicable tax credits related to the current year. Deferred income tax expense generally is equal to the changes in the deferred income tax liability and regulatory tax liability during the year.
Investment and Other Tax Credits
Deferred investment tax credits associated with distribution operations are included as a regulatory liability in our consolidated balance sheets (see Note 1, "Accounting Policies and Methods of Application"). These investment tax credits are being amortized over the estimated life of the related properties as credits to income in accordance with regulatory requirements. In 2007, we invested in a guaranteed affordable housing tax credit fund. We reduce income tax expense in our statements of consolidated income for the investment tax credits and other tax credits associated with our nonregulated subsidiaries, including the affordable housing credits.
Components of income tax expense shown in the statements of consolidated income are shown in the following table.
Income Tax Expense
The relative split between current and deferred taxes is due to a variety of factors including true ups of prior year tax returns, and most importantly, the timing of our property-related deductions.
The reconciliations between the statutory federal income tax rate, the effective rate and the related amount of tax for the years ended December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005 are presented in the following tables.
Accumulated Deferred Income Tax Assets and Liabilities
We report some of our assets and liabilities differently for financial accounting purposes than we do for income tax purposes. We report the tax effects of the differences in those items as deferred income tax assets or liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets. We measure the assets and liabilities using income tax rates that are currently in effect. Because of the regulated nature of the utilities' business, we recorded a regulatory tax liability in accordance with SFAS 109, which we are amortizing over approximately 30 years (see Note 1 "Accounting Policies and Methods of Application"). Our deferred tax assets include $35 million related to an unfunded pension and postretirement benefit obligation and did not change from 2006.
As indicated in the following table, our deferred tax assets and liabilities include certain items we acquired from NUI. We have provided a valuation allowance for some of these items that reduce our net deferred tax assets to amounts we believe are more likely than not to be realized in future periods. With respect to our continuing operations, we have net operating losses in various jurisdictions. Components that give rise to the net accumulated deferred income tax liability are as follows.
In June 2006, the FASB issued FIN 48, which addressed the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. Under FIN 48, we may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. FIN 48 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. We adopted the provisions of FIN 48 on January 1, 2007. At the date of adoption, and as of December 31, 2007, we did not have a liability for unrecognized tax benefits. Based on current information, we do not anticipate that this will change materially in 2008.
We recognize accrued interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in operating expenses in the consolidated statements of income, which is consistent with the recognition of these items in prior reporting periods. As of December 31, 2007, we did not have a liability recorded for payment of interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions.
We file a U.S. federal consolidated income tax return and various state income tax returns. We are no longer subject to income tax examinations by the Internal Revenue Service or any state for years before 2002.